Concerning the respect for private life and the protection of personal data in electronic communications and repealing Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications)
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and in particular Articles 16 and 114 thereof,
Having respect to the proposal from the European Commission,
After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee,
Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions,
Having regard to the opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor,
Acting by the ordinary legislative procedure,
- Article 7 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (“the Charter”) protects the fundamental right of everyone to the respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications. Respect for the privacy of one’s communications is an essential dimension of this right. Confidentiality of electronic communications ensures that information exchanged between parties and the external elements of such communication, including when the information has been sent, from where to who is not to be revealed to anyone other than to the parties involved in a communication. The principle of confidentiality should apply to current and future means of communication, including calls, internet access, instant messaging applications, e-mail, internet phone calls and personal messaging provided through social media.
- The content of electronic communications may reveal highly sensitive information about the natural persons involved in the communication, from personal experiences and emotions to medical conditions, sexual preferences and political views, the disclosure of which could result in personal and social harm, economic loss or embarrassment. Similarly, metadata derived from electronic communications may also reveal very sensitive and personal information. These metadata includes the numbers called, the websites visited, geographical location, the time, date and duration when an individual made a call etc., allowing precise conclusions to be drawn regarding the private lives of the persons involved in the electronic communication, such as their social relationships, their habits and activities of everyday life, their interests, tastes etc.
- Electronic communications data may also reveal information concerning legal entities, such as business secrets or other sensitive information that has economic value. Therefore, the provisions of this Regulation should apply to both natural and legal persons. Furthermore, this Regulation should ensure that provisions of the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and the Council, also apply to end-users who are legal persons. This includes the definition of consent under Regulation (EU) 2016/679. When reference is made to consent by an end-user, including legal persons, this definition should apply. Also, legal persons should have the same rights as end-users that are natural persons regarding the supervisory authorities; furthermore, supervisory authorities under this Regulation should also be responsible for monitoring the application of this Regulation regarding legal persons.
- Under Article 8(1) of the Charter and Article 16(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her. Regulation (EU) 2016/679 lays down rules relating to the protection of natural persons about the processing of personal data and rules relating to the free movement of personal data. Electronic communications data may include personal data as defined in Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
- The provisions of this Regulation particularise and complement the general rules on the protection of personal data laid down in Regulation (EU) 2016/679 as regards electronic communications data that qualify as personal data. This Regulation, therefore, does not lower the level of protection enjoyed by natural persons under Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Processing of electronic communications data by providers of electronic communications services should only be permitted by this Regulation.
- While the principles and main provisions of Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and the Council generally remain sound, that Directive has not fully kept pace with the evolution of technological and market reality, resulting in an inconsistent or insufficient effective protection of privacy and confidentiality about electronic communications. Those developments include the entrance on the market of electronic communications services from a consumer perspective are substitutable to traditional services but do not have to comply with the same set of rules. Another development concerns new techniques that allow for the tracking of online behaviour of end-users, which are not covered by Directive 2002/58/EC. Directive 2002/58/EC should, therefore, be repealed and replaced by this Regulation.
- The Member States should be allowed, within the limits of this Regulation, to maintain or introduce national provisions to further specify and clarify the application of the rules of this Regulation to ensure an effective application and interpretation of those rules. Therefore, the margin of discretion, which the Member States have in this regard, should maintain a balance between the protection of private life and personal data and the free movement of electronic communications data.
- This Regulation should apply to providers of electronic communications services, to providers of publicly available directories, and software providers permitting electronic communications, including the retrieval and presentation of information on the internet. This Regulation should also apply to natural and legal persons who use electronic communications services to send direct marketing commercial communications or collect information related to or stored in end-users’ terminal equipment.
- This Regulation should apply to electronic communications data processed in connection with the provision and use of electronic communications services in the Union, regardless of whether or not the processing takes place in the Union. Moreover, in order not to deprive end-users in the Union of effective protection, this Regulation should also apply to electronic communications data processed in connection with the provision of electronic communications services from outside the Union to end-users in the Union.
- Radio equipment and its software which is placed on the internal market in the Union must comply with Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and the Council. This Regulation should not affect the applicability of any of the requirements of Directive 2014/53/EU nor the power of the Commission to adopt delegated acts under Directive 2014/53/EU requiring that specific categories or classes of radio equipment incorporate safeguards to ensure that personal data and privacy of end-users are protected.
- The services used for communications purposes, and the technical means of their delivery, have evolved considerably. End-users increasingly replace traditional voice telephony, text messages (SMS) and electronic mail conveyance services in favour of functionally equivalent online services such as Voice over IP, messaging services and web-based e-mail services. To ensure effective and equal protection of end-users when using functionally equivalent services, this Regulation uses the definition of electronic communications services outlined in the [Directive of the European Parliament and the Council establishing the European Electronic Communications Code]. That definition encompasses not only internet access services and services consisting wholly or partly in the conveyance of signals but also interpersonal communications services, which may or may not be number-based, such as, Voice over IP, messaging services and web-based e-mail services. The protection of confidentiality of communications is crucial also as regards interpersonal communications services that are ancillary to another service; therefore, such type of services is also having a communication functionality should be covered by this Regulation.
- Connected devices and machines increasingly communicate with each other by using electronic communications networks (Internet of Things). The transmission of machine-to-machine communications involves the conveyance of signals over a network and, hence, usually constitutes an electronic communications service. To ensure full protection of the rights to privacy and confidentiality of communications, and to promote a trusted and secure Internet of Things in the single digital market, it is necessary to clarify that this Regulation should apply to the transmission of machine-to-machine communications. Therefore, the principle of confidentiality enshrined in this Regulation should also apply to the transmission of machine-to-machine communications. Specific safeguards could also be adopted under sectoral legislation, as Directive 2014/53/EU.
- The development of fast and efficient wireless technologies has fostered the increasing availability for the public of internet access via wireless networks accessible by anyone in public and semi-private spaces such as ‘hotspots’ situated at different places within a city, department stores, shopping malls and hospitals. To the extent that those communications networks are provided to an undefined group of end-users, the confidentiality of the communications transmitted through such networks should be protected. The fact that wireless electronic communications services may be ancillary to other services should not stand in the way of ensuring the protection of confidentiality of communications data and application of this Regulation. Therefore, this Regulation should apply to electronic communications data using electronic communications services and public communications networks. In contrast, this Regulation should not apply to closed groups of end-users such as corporate networks, access to which is limited to members of the corporation.
- Electronic communications data should be defined in a sufficiently broad and technology-neutral way so as to encompass any information concerning the content transmitted or exchanged (electronic communications content) and the information concerning an end-user of electronic communications services processed for transmitting, distributing or enabling the exchange of electronic communications content; including data to trace and identify the source and destination of a communication, geographical location and the date, time, duration and the type of communication. Whether such signals and the related data are conveyed by wire, radio, optical or electromagnetic means, including satellite networks, cable networks, fixed (circuit- and packet-switched, including internet) and mobile terrestrial networks, electricity cable systems, the data related to such signals should be considered as electronic communications metadata and therefore be subject to the provisions of this Regulation. Electronic communications metadata may include information that is part of the subscription to the service when such information is processed for the purposes of transmitting, distributing or exchanging electronic communications content.
- Electronic communications data should be treated as confidential. This means that any interference with the transmission of electronic communications data, whether directly by human intervention or through the intermediation of automated processing by machines, without the consent of all the communicating parties should be prohibited. The prohibition of interception of communications data should apply during their conveyance, i.e. until receipt of the content of the electronic communication by the intended addressee. Interception of electronic communications data may occur, for example, when someone other than the communicating parties, listens to calls, reads, scans or stores the content of electronic communications, or the associated metadata for purposes other than the exchange of communications. Interception also occurs when third parties monitor websites visited, the timing of the visits, interaction with others, etc., without the consent of the end-user concerned. As technology evolves, the technical ways to engage in interception have also increased. Such ways may range from the installation of equipment that gathers data from terminal equipment over targeted areas, such as the so-called IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) catchers, to programs and techniques that, for example, surreptitiously monitor browsing habits for the purpose of creating end-user profiles. Other examples of interception include capturing payload data or content data from unencrypted wireless networks and routers, including browsing habits without the end-users’ consent.
- The prohibition of storage of communications is not intended to prohibit any automatic, intermediate and transient storage of this information insofar as this takes place for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission in the electronic communications network. It should not prohibit either the processing of electronic communications data to ensure the security and continuity of the electronic communications services, including checking security threats such as the presence of malware or the processing of metadata to ensure the necessary quality of service requirements, such as latency, jitter etc.
- The processing of electronic communications data can be useful for businesses, consumers and society as a whole. Vis-à-vis Directive 2002/58/EC, this Regulation broadens the possibilities for providers of electronic communications services to process electronic communications metadata, based on end-users consent. However, end-users attach great importance to the confidentiality of their communications, including their online activities, and that they want to control the use of electronic communications data for purposes other than conveying the communication. Therefore, this Regulation should require providers of electronic communications services to obtain end-users’ consent to process electronic communications metadata, which should include data on the location of the device generated for the purposes of granting and maintaining access and connection to the service. Location data that is generated other than in the context of providing electronic communications services should not be considered as metadata. Examples of commercial usages of electronic communications metadata by providers of electronic communications services may include the provision of heatmaps; a graphical representation of data using colours to indicate the presence of individuals. To display the traffic movements in certain directions during a certain period, an identifier is necessary to link the positions of individuals at certain time intervals. This identifier would be missing if anonymous data were to be used and such a movement could not be displayed. Such usage of electronic communications metadata could, for example, benefit public authorities and public transport operators to define where to develop new infrastructure, based on the usage of and pressure on the existing structure. Where a type of processing of electronic communications metadata, in particular using new technologies and taking into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing, is likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons, a data protection impact assessment and, as the case may be, a consultation of the supervisory authority should take place prior to the processing, in accordance with Articles 35 and 36 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
- End-users may consent to the processing of their metadata to receive specific services such as protection services against fraudulent activities (by analysing usage data, location and customer account in real time). In the digital economy, services are often supplied against counter-performance other than money, for instance by end-users being exposed to advertisements. For this Regulation, consent of an end-user, regardless of whether the latter is a natural or a legal person, should have the same meaning and be subject to the same conditions as the data subject’s consent under Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Basic broadband internet access and voice communications services are to be considered as essential services for individuals to be able to communicate and participate in the benefits of the digital economy. Consent for processing data from internet or voice communication usage will not be valid if the data subject has no genuine and free choice, or is unable to refuse or withdraw consent without detriment.
- The content of electronic communications pertains to the essence of the fundamental right to respect for private and family life, home and communications protected under Article 7 of the Charter. Any interference with the content of electronic communications should be allowed only under very clearly defined conditions, for specific purposes and be subject to adequate safeguards against abuse. This Regulation provides for the possibility of providers of electronic communications services to process electronic communications data in transit, with the informed consent of all the end-users concerned. For example, providers may offer services that entail the scanning of emails to remove certain pre-defined material. Given the sensitivity of the content of communications, this Regulation sets forth a presumption that the processing of such content data will result in high risks to the rights and freedoms of natural persons. When processing such type of data, the provider of the electronic communications service should always consult the supervisory authority before the processing. Such consultation should be by Article 36 (2) and (3) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. The presumption does not encompass the processing of content data to provide a service requested by the end-user where the end-user has consented to such processing, and it is carried out for the purposes and duration strictly necessary and proportionate for such service. After electronic communications content has been sent by the end-user and received by the intended end-user or end-users, it may be recorded or stored by the end-user, end-users or by a third party entrusted by them to record or store such data. Any processing of such data must comply with Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
- Terminal equipment of end-users of electronic communications networks and any information relating to the usage of such terminal equipment, whether in particular is stored in or emitted by such equipment, requested from or processed in order to enable it to connect to another device and or network equipment, are part of the private sphere of the end-users requiring protection under the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Given that such equipment contains or processes information that may reveal details of an individual’s emotional, political, social complexities, including the content of communications, pictures, the location of individuals by accessing the device’s GPS capabilities, contact lists, and other information already stored in the device, the information related to such equipment requires enhanced privacy protection. Furthermore, the so-called spyware, web bugs, hidden identifiers, tracking cookies and other similar unwanted tracking tools can enter end-user’s terminal equipment without their knowledge to gain access to information, to store hidden information and to trace the activities. Information related to the end user’s device may also be collected remotely for identification and tracking, using techniques such as the so-called ‘device fingerprinting’, often without the knowledge of the end-user, and may seriously intrude upon the privacy of these end-users. Techniques that surreptitiously monitor the actions of end-users, for example by tracking their activities online or the location of their terminal equipment, or subvert the operation of the end-users’ terminal equipment pose a serious threat to the privacy of end-users. Therefore, any such interference with the end-user’s terminal equipment should be allowed only with the end-user’s consent and for specific and transparent purposes.
- Exceptions to the obligation to obtain consent to make use of the processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment or to access information stored in terminal equipment should be limited to situations that involve no, or only very limited, the intrusion of privacy. For instance, consent should not be requested for authorizing the technical storage or access which is strictly necessary and proportionate for the legitimate purpose of enabling the use of a specific service explicitly requested by the end-user. This may include the storing of cookies for the duration of a single established session on a website to keep track of the end user’s input when filling in online forms over several pages. Cookies can also be a legitimate and useful tool, for example, in measuring web traffic to a website. Information society providers that engage in configuration checking to provide the service in compliance with the end-user’s settings and the mere logging of the fact that the end user’s device is unable to receive content requested by the end-user should not constitute access to such a device or use of the device processing capabilities.
- The methods used for providing information and obtaining end-user’s consent should be as user-friendly as possible. Given the ubiquitous use of tracking cookies and other tracking techniques, end-users are increasingly requested to provide consent to store such tracking cookies in their terminal equipment. As a result, end-users are overloaded with requests to provide consent. The use of technical means to provide consent, for example, through transparent and user-friendly settings, may address this problem. Therefore, this Regulation should provide for the possibility to express consent by using the appropriate settings of a browser or other application. The choices made by end-users when establishing its general privacy settings of a browser or other application should be binding on, and enforceable against, any third parties. Web browsers are a type of software application that permits the retrieval and presentation of information on the internet. Other types of applications, such as the ones that permit calling and messaging or provide route guidance, also have the same capabilities. Web browsers mediate much of what occurs between the end-user and the website. From this perspective, they are in a privileged position to play an active role to help the end-user to control the flow of information to and from the terminal equipment. More particularly web browsers may be used as gatekeepers, thus helping end-users to prevent information from their terminal equipment (for example a smartphone, tablet or computer) from being accessed or stored.
- The principles of data protection by design and by default were codified under Article 25 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Currently, the default settings for cookies are set in most current browsers to ‘accept all cookies’. Therefore providers of software enabling the retrieval and presentation of information on the internet should have an obligation to configure the software so that it offers the option to prevent third parties from storing information on the terminal equipment; this is often presented as ‘reject third-party cookies’. End-users should be offered a set of privacy setting options, ranging from higher (for example, ‘never accept cookies’) to lower (for example, ‘always accept cookies’) and intermediate (for example, ‘reject third-party cookies’ or ‘only accept first-party cookies’). Such privacy settings should be presented in an easily visible and intelligible manner.
- For web browsers to be able to obtain end-users’ consent as defined under Regulation (EU) 2016/679, for example, to the storage of third-party tracking cookies, they should, among others, require a clear affirmative action from the end-user of terminal equipment to signify his or her freely given, specifically informed, and unambiguous agreement to the storage and access of such cookies in and from the terminal equipment. Such action may be considered to be affirmative, for example, if end-users are required to actively select ‘accept third party cookies’ to confirm their agreement and are given the necessary information to make a choice. To this end, it is necessary to require providers of software enabling access to the internet that, at the moment of installation, end-users are informed about the possibility to choose the privacy settings among the various options and ask them to make a choice. Information provided should not dissuade end-users from selecting higher privacy settings and should include relevant information about the risks associated to allowing third-party cookies to be stored in the computer, including the compilation of long-term records of individuals’ browsing histories and the use of such records to send targeted advertising. Web browsers are encouraged to provide easy ways for end-users to change the privacy settings at any time during use and to allow the user to make exceptions for or to whitelist certain websites or to specify for which websites (third) party cookies are always or never allowed.
- Accessing electronic communications networks requires the regular emission of certain data packets to discover or maintain a connection with the network or other devices on the network. Furthermore, devices must have a unique address assigned to be identifiable on that network. Wireless and cellular telephone standards similarly involve the emission of active signals containing unique identifiers such as a MAC address, the IMEI (International Mobile Station Equipment Identity), the IMSI etc. A single wireless base station (i.e. a transmitter and receiver), such as a wireless access point, has a specific range within which such information may be captured. Service providers have emerged who offer tracking services based on the scanning of equipment related information with diverse functionalities, including people counting, providing data on the number of people waiting in line, ascertaining the number of people in a specific area, etc. This information may be used for more intrusive purposes, such as to send commercial messages to end-users, for example when they enter stores, with personalized offers. While some of these functionalities do not entail high privacy risks, others do, for example, those involving the tracking of individuals over time, including repeated visits to specified locations. Providers engaged in such practices should display prominent notices located on the edge of the area of coverage informing end-users prior to entering the defined area that the technology is in operation within a given perimeter, the purpose of the tracking, the person responsible for it and the existence of any measure the end-user of the terminal equipment can take to minimize or stop the collection. Additional information should be provided where personal data are collected under Article 13 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
- When the processing of electronic communications data by providers of electronic communications services falls within its scope, this Regulation should provide for the possibility for the Union or Member States under specific conditions to restrict by law certain obligations and rights when such a restriction constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard specific public interests, including national security, defence, public security and the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security and other important objectives of general public interest of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, or a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected to the exercise of official authority for such interests. Therefore, this Regulation should not affect the ability of Member States to carry out lawful interception of electronic communications or take other measures, if necessary and proportionate to safeguard the public interests mentioned above, in accordance with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union and of the European Court of Human Rights. Providers of electronic communications services should provide for appropriate procedures to facilitate legitimate requests of competent authorities, where relevant also taking into account the role of the representative designated under Article 3(3).
- As regards calling line identification, it is necessary to protect the right of the calling party to withhold the presentation of the identification of the line from which the call is being made and the right of the called party to reject calls from unidentified lines. Certain end-users, in particular, help lines, and similar organisations have an interest in guaranteeing the anonymity of their callers. As regards connected line identification, it is necessary to protect the right and the legitimate interest of the called party to withhold the presentation of the identification of the line to which the calling party is connected.
- There is justification for overriding the elimination of calling line identification presentation in specific cases. End-users’ rights to privacy about calling line identification should be restricted where this is necessary to trace nuisance calls and about calling line identification and location data where this is necessary to allow emergency services, such as eCall, to carry out their tasks as effectively as possible.
- The technology exists that enables providers of electronic communications services to limit the reception of unwanted calls by end-users in different ways, including blocking silent calls and other fraudulent and nuisance calls. Providers of publicly available number-based interpersonal communications services should deploy this technology and protect end-users against nuisance calls and free of charge. Providers should ensure that end-users are aware of the existence of such functionalities, for instance, by publicising the fact on their webpage.
- Publicly available directories of end-users of electronic communications services are widely distributed. Publicly available directories mean any directory or service containing end-users information such as phone numbers (including mobile phone numbers), email address contact details and include inquiry services. The right to privacy and to the protection of the personal data of a natural person requires that end-users that are natural persons are asked for consent before their data are included in a directory. The legitimate interest of legal entities requires that end-users that are legal entities have the right to object to the data related to them being included in a directory.
- If end-users that are natural persons give their consent to their data being included in such directories, they should be able to determine on a consent basis which categories of personal data are included in the directory (for example name, email address, home address, username, phone number). Also, providers of publicly available directories should inform the end-users of the purposes of the directory and the search functions of the directory before including them in that directory. End-users should be able to determine by consent by which categories of personal data their contact details can be searched. The categories of personal data included in the directory and the categories of personal data by which the end-user’s contact details can be searched should not necessarily be the same.
- In this Regulation, direct marketing refers to any form of advertising by which a natural or legal person sends direct marketing communications directly to one or more identified or identifiable end-users using electronic communications services. In addition to the offering of products and services for commercial purposes, this should also include messages sent by political parties that contact natural persons via electronic communications services to promote their parties. The same should apply to messages sent by other non-profit organisations to support the purposes of the organisation.
- Safeguards should be provided to protect end-users against unsolicited communications for direct marketing purposes, which intrude into the private life of end-users. The degree of privacy intrusion and nuisance is considered relatively similar independently of the wide range of technologies and channels used to conduct these electronic communications, whether using automated calling and communication systems, instant messaging applications, emails, SMS, MMS, Bluetooth, etc. It is therefore justified to require that consent of the end-user is obtained before commercial electronic communications for direct marketing purposes are sent to end-users to effectively protect individuals against the intrusion into their private life as well as the legitimate interest of legal persons. Legal certainty and the need to ensure that the rules protecting against unsolicited electronic communications remain future-proof justify the need to define a single set of rules that do not vary according to the technology used to convey these unsolicited communications, while at the same time guaranteeing an equivalent level of protection for all citizens throughout the Union. However, it is reasonable to allow the use of e-mail contact details within the context of an existing customer relationship for the offering of similar products or services. Such a possibility should only apply to the same company that has obtained the electronic contact details by Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
- When end-users have provided their consent to receiving unsolicited communications for direct marketing purposes, they should still be able to withdraw their consent at any time in an easy manner. To facilitate effective enforcement of Union rules on unsolicited messages for direct marketing, it is necessary to prohibit the masking of the identity and the use of false identities, false return addresses or numbers while sending unsolicited commercial communications for direct marketing purposes. Unsolicited marketing communications should, therefore, be recognizable as such and should indicate the identity of the legal or the natural person transmitting the communication or on behalf of whom the communication is transmitted and provide the necessary information for recipients to exercise their right to oppose to receiving further written and oral marketing messages.
- To allow easy withdrawal of consent, legal or natural persons conducting direct marketing communications by email should present a link, or a valid electronic mail address, which can be easily used by end-users to withdraw their consent. Legal or natural persons conducting direct marketing communications through voice-to-voice calls and calls by automating calling and communication systems should display their identity line on which the company can be called or present a specific code identifying the fact that the call is a marketing call.
- Voice-to-voice direct marketing calls that do not involve the use of automated calling and communication systems, given that they are more costly for the sender and impose no financial costs on end-users. Member States should, therefore, be able to establish and or maintain national systems only allowing such calls to end-users who have not objected.
- Service providers who offer electronic communications services should inform end- users of measures they can take to protect the security of their communications for instance by using specific types of software or encryption technologies. The requirement to inform end-users of particular security risks does not discharge a service provider from the obligation to take, at its costs, appropriate and immediate measures to remedy any new, unforeseen security risks and restore the normal security level of the service. The provision of information about security risks to the subscriber should be free of charge. Security is appraised in the light of Article 32 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
- To ensure full consistency with Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the enforcement of the provisions of this Regulation should be entrusted to the same authorities responsible for the enforcement of the provisions Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and this Regulation relies on the consistency mechanism of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Member States should be able to have more than one supervisory authority, to reflect their constitutional, organisational and administrative structure. The supervisory authorities should also be responsible for monitoring the application of this Regulation regarding electronic communications data for legal entities. Such additional tasks should not jeopardise the ability of the supervisory authority to perform its tasks regarding the protection of personal data under Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and this Regulation. Each supervisory authority should be provided with the additional financial and human resources, premises and infrastructure necessary for the effective performance of the tasks under this Regulation.
- Each supervisory authority should be competent on the territory of its Member State to exercise the powers and to perform the tasks outlined in this Regulation. In order to ensure consistent monitoring and enforcement of this Regulation throughout the Union, the supervisory authorities should have the same tasks and effective powers in each Member State, without prejudice to the powers of prosecutorial authorities under Member State law, to bring infringements of this Regulation to the attention of the judicial authorities and engage in legal proceedings. Member States and their supervisory authorities are encouraged to take account of the specific needs of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in the application of this Regulation.
- In order to strengthen the enforcement of the rules of this Regulation, each supervisory authority should have the power to impose penalties including administrative fines for any infringement of this Regulation, in addition to, or instead of any other appropriate measures pursuant to this Regulation. This Regulation should indicate infringements and the upper limit and criteria for setting the related administrative fines, which should be determined by the competent supervisory authority in each individual case, taking into account all relevant circumstances of the specific situation, with due regard in particular to the nature, gravity and duration of the infringement and of its consequences and the measures taken to ensure compliance with the obligations under this Regulation and to prevent or mitigate the consequences of the infringement. For the purpose of setting a fine under this Regulation, an undertaking should be understood to be an undertaking in accordance with Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty.
- In order to fulfil the objectives of this Regulation, namely to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons and in particular their right to the protection of personal data and to ensure the free movement of personal data within the Union, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty should be delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation. In particular, delegated acts should be adopted in respect of the information to be presented, including by means of standardised icons in order to give an easily visible and intelligible overview of the collection of information emitted by terminal equipment, its purpose, the person responsible for it and of any measure the end-user of the terminal equipment can take to minimise the collection. Delegated acts are also necessary to specify a code to identify direct marketing calls including those made through automated calling and communication systems. It is of particular importance that the Commission carries out appropriate consultations and that those consultations be conducted in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement on Better Law-Making of 13 April 2016. In particular, to ensure equal participation in the preparation of delegated acts, the European Parliament and the Council receive all documents at the same time as Member States’ experts, and their experts systematically have access to meetings of Commission expert groups dealing with the preparation of delegated acts. Furthermore, in order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Regulation, implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission when provided for by this Regulation. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011.
- Since the objective of this Regulation, namely to ensure an equivalent level of protection of natural and legal persons and the free flow of electronic communications data throughout the Union, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can rather, by reason of the scale or effects of the action, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality as set out in that Article, this Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective.
- Directive 2002/58/EC should be repealed.
HAVE ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:
 Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1–88).
 Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications) (OJ L 201, 31.7.2002, p.37).
 Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment and repealing Directive 1999/5/EC (OJ L 153, 22.5.2014, p. 62).
 Commission proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the European Electronic Communications Code (Recast) (COM/2016/0590 final – 2016/0288 (COD)).
 Interinstitutional Agreement between the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Commission on Better Law-Making of 13 April 2016 (OJ L 123, 12.5.2016, p. 1–14).